Synthetic Fibers: Nylon and Rayon 1949 Encyclopaedia Britannica Films

Support this channel: https://paypal.me/jeffquitney OR https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/ ‘The development of new artificial fibers for making textiles — specifically rayon and nylon.’ Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven…

Synthetic Fibers: Nylon and Rayon 1949 Encyclopaedia Britannica Films

Source

0
(0)

Support this channel: https://paypal.me/jeffquitney OR https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney

more at http://quickfound.net/

‘The development of new artificial fibers for making textiles — specifically rayon and nylon.’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nylon
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes. It is made of repeating units linked by amide links similar to the peptide bonds in proteins. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations. Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications in fabric and fibers (apparel, flooring and rubber reinforcement), in shapes (molded parts for cars, electrical equipment, etc.), and in films (mostly for food packaging).

Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer. DuPont began its research project in 1927. The first example of nylon (nylon 6,6) was produced using diamines on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Hume Carothers at DuPont’s research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station. In response to Carothers’ work, Paul Schlack at IG Farben developed nylon 6, a different molecule based on caprolactam, on January 29, 1938.

Nylon was first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush in 1938, followed more famously in women’s stockings or “nylons” which were shown at the 1939 New York World’s Fair and first sold commercially in 1940. During World War II, almost all nylon production was diverted to the military for use in parachutes and parachute cord. Wartime uses of nylon and other plastics greatly increased the market for the new materials…

DuPont, founded by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, first produced gunpowder and later cellulose-based paints. Following WWI, DuPont produced synthetic ammonia and other chemicals. DuPont began experimenting with the development of cellulose based fibers, eventually producing the synthetic fiber rayon. DuPont’s experience with rayon was an important precursor to its development and marketing of nylon.

DuPont’s invention of nylon spanned an eleven-year period, ranging from the initial research program in polymers in 1927 to its announcement in 1938, shortly before the opening of the 1939 New York World’s Fair. The project grew from a new organizational structure at DuPont… Harvard instructor Wallace Hume Carothers was hired to direct the polymer research group…

In the spring of 1930, Carothers and his team had already synthesized two new polymers. One was neoprene, a synthetic rubber greatly used during World War II. The other was a white elastic but strong paste that would later become nylon…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayon

Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber. The many types and grades of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk.

Since rayon is manufactured from naturally occurring polymers, it is not considered to be synthetic. Technically, the term synthetic fiber is reserved for fully synthetic fibers. In manufacturing terms, rayon is classified as “a fiber formed by regenerating natural materials into a usable form”. Specific types of rayon include viscose, modal and lyocell, each of which differs in manufacturing process and properties of the finished product.

Rayon is made from purified cellulose, harvested primarily from wood pulp, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound. It is then dissolved and forced through a spinneret to produce filaments which are chemically solidified, resulting in fibers of nearly pure cellulose. Unless the chemicals are handled carefully, workers can be seriously harmed by the carbon disulfide used to manufacture most rayon…

Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose, a chemical derivative of cellulose produced with nitric acid, was first discovered in 1832 by Henri Braconnot but was unstably explosive until the 1846 process of Christian Schönbein, The degree of nitrification determined its explosiveness, solubility in organic solvents such as ether and acetone, and mechanical properties when dry. Its solubility was the basis for the first “artificial silk” by Georges Audemars in 1855, which he called “Rayon”…

0 / 5. 0

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *